Physical skills are easier in middle childhood as children’s bodies are larger and stronger because of increased muscular and skeletal development, and motor coordination improves as a result of neural development.
The incidence of ADHD is increasing in Western nations. However, some experts argue ADHD is being overdiagnosed and are disturbed by the large numbers of children prescribed Ritalin. What could be the reason for this increase in diagnosis?
Cognitive development is an important part in infancy’s holistic growth. It refers to the ways children think, develop language, solve problems, and gain knowledge. Identifying colors, knowing the difference between one and many, and looking for the hidden object are the examples of cognitive tasks. The milestones which are detailed as follows can prove that how infant’s cognition develops. Charlesworth (2000) describes that infant response to sound, and turn their head in the first month. In the period of the first four months, they start to understand patterns. For example, they would learn that a bottle means feeding time. In 4-8 months, they track objects that leave their direct line of vision. In 8 -12 months, they repeat the same action (repeat clapping), and look for a hidden object in the first location.
Jean Piaget described that infant’s cognitive development manifested on their sensory abilities. Infants show their intelligence through sensory awareness and motor activities, and discover the relationships between their bodies and the environment relying on seeing, touching, sucking, feeling, and using their senses. Piaget called this the sensorimotor stagewhich is the earliest stage in stages of cognitive development. According to Piaget’s cognitive developmental theory, infants can explore by themselves through the environment, develop their cognition from one stage to next stage, when infants reach one stage, they can learn some knowledge, as they are in that stage.
Piaget splits the sensory-motor stage (about 0-2 years old) into 6 sub-stages: reflexive schemas, then primary, secondary, coordination of secondary and tertiary circular reactions (12-18 months), and mental representation (18-24 months). He believed that babies began to understand some of the information receiving from their senses, and learn to use some muscles and limbs for movement from birth to 1 month. These developments are known as reflexive schemas (Hoffnung, Hoffnung, Seifert, Smith &Hine, 2010). In primary circular reactions stage (1-4 months), infants begin to repeat some motivated behaviors, response to environmental demands, and copy other baby’s actions (Hoffnung, Hoffnung, Seifert, Smith &Hine, 2010). In secondary circular reactions stage (4-8 months), infants try to sit up and touch objects, and watch adults play games but not able to participate (Hoffnung, Hoffnung, Seifert, Smith &Hine, 2010). In coordination circular reactions stage (8-12 months), infants begin to find a hidden object. They realize that an object still exist even when it is out of sight. This is called object permanence which is an important concept in Piaget’s theory (Hoffnung, Hoffnung, Seifert, Smith &Hine, 2010). Also, infants try to change some behaviors that they usually do. For example, they would try to push a toy car rather than just touch it.
Dangers Of Childhood Obesity
Dr. Travis Stork warns that some children suffering from obesity may have clogged arteries that may lead to a possible heart attack before the age of 30.
This article seeks to provide information about ADHD that clarifies conflicting media information about the cause and treatments. It provided the following information on the cause of ADHD:
What causes ADHD?
“Most children affected by ADHD have a parent or other close relative who also displays symptoms. Other, non-genetic causes of ADHD may include:
- problems during pregnancy, such as exposure to tobacco or alcohol
- a premature birth or very low birth weight
- injury to the front of the brain
We know that ADHD is not caused by poor parenting or because a child isn’t “disciplined” enough. It is not caused by watching too much TV or having too much sugar.
Some children become more hyper because they react to some additives found in most processed foods. This isn’t ADHD. It may be an allergy or food sensitivity that parents need to talk with their child’s doctor about.”